Manufacturing Bio Jet Fuel from bio organic materials may become a major industry in the developing regions of the world and Jatropha Curcas's professional cultivation can lead to a supply of bio mass for processing from non food, rain fed, agricultural locations.
For the past number of years I have engaged with investigating the potentials of Jatropha Curcas Linn throughout the sub tropical regions of Africa, India and SE Asia as well as a number of island states. I have quite a long history in East Africa. In 2002 I began researching the potentials for bio energy from the cultivation of Jatropha Curcas Linn on marginal lands. In 2003 I formed relationships with the promotors of D1 Ltd and continued support for the company's aim to realise PLC status in 2004. Over 2004/5 I consistently represented the interests of D1 Oils Plc in SE Asia obtaining a valuable relationship with the Thialand Ministry of Alternative Energy and executing a long term R & D program with the support of the UK Department of Trade and Industry as a direct result of representing the corporate ideology, in 2005/6/7 this relationship was extended throughout the alternative energy departments of the SE Asian communities.
For an extended period, with multiple national government development policy departments I have continued to promote an agriculture to industry policy for Jatropha Curcas Linn that seeks to deliver logical responses for the global requirement to identify sustainable alternative energy solutions derived from non-fossil resources that contribute to green house gas emissions reduction opportunity.
There has never been a time when it has been economically,socially or environmentally feasible to consider the importation of tropical crude oil (food or non-food quality) for processing in the United Kingdom, or the EU generally.
The use of food oils derived from arable land agriculture has not been supported for the production of bio fuels and this has also been the case when considering the sustainability of Palm Oil as a GHG emissions reduction opportunity. There are relatively few plant species that can claim the beneficial attributes that are ascribed to Jatropha Curcas Linn. Having said this there are many observations that show Jatropha Curcas cultivation failing to deliver in terms of seed oil harvest values. There are well in excess of 1,500 experimental Jatropha Curcas plantations dotted throughout the sub tropical regions. Many are government sponsored, projects embraced by departments of agriculture and energy science in university networks and, company as well as private undertakings. There are several international university projects established to investigate the vitality of Jatropha Curcas Linn to deliver commercial volumes of biomass for processing to alternative fuels, lubricants, bio-plastics, animal feeds and, various pharmaceutical commodities.
While the majority of Jatropha Curcas projects focus only upon the utility of CJO (Crude Jatropha Oil) as the mainstay of economic interest there are an exceptional number of studies that illustrate that economic viability for the cultivation of Jatropha can only be achieved from management of the complete renewable biomass harvest values and that in order to obtain the desirable levels of harvest return per H/a there needs to be a sustained professional agricultural extension intervention that is supported by the complimentary build up of process/biorefinery technologies managed effectively to create a strong market for agricultural endevour while satisfying "least cost" "least GHG emissions" "least environmental damage" "least land use change" "least population exploitation" and best practice in terms of food security and management of water resources.
Such conditionality's can be met from the correct promotion of energy agriculture, using Jatropha Curcas and other non-food oil/biomass producing species, established on marginal, rain fed land areas.
I do not wish to indicate that Jatropha Curcas Linn is any form of magic plant species or in fact a highly developed oil seed producing tree that we can have the type of expectancies many have claimed. Currently there is exceptional interest in discovering GM solutions for some of the supposed failings of Jatropha Curcas. However; Jatropha Curcas Linn, when one considers average returns from quality farming practices, already produces very acceptable levels of biomass that can be processed to deliver positive outcomes in terms of advanced liquid fuels, decentralised energy, fertilizers, animal feeds, and pharmaceutical products.
What I can suggest is the potential to return reasonable levels of biomass and, upon maturity biomass + Crude Jatropha Oil, from cultivations on rain fed marginal non food land in the sub tropics is desirable and that when intercropped with other oil seed producing species there is a return on biomass and oil that can be very attractive.
With any biomass derived alternative energy program we should be discussing considerable professional agricultural extension services and support, harvest enhancement, harvest management, purchase, collection, processing and delivery to market. These actions, much more than GMO solutions are the fulcrum of sustainable agriculture to industry. GM species add very little to agricultural productivity in regions where agricultural proficiencies have not been improved or supported, in fact, even in locations (USA/EU) of exceptional professional agricultural activity there is debate about improvement expectations.
While I have evaluated over 40 sub tropical locations that possess a range of strategic conditionality’s that suggest there can be an optimistic believe in JCL project success I have continued to use the Kilimanjaro Region of Tanzania as a "template" region for the construction of a business model. This is because the Arusha/Moshi region of East Africa is the Capital of the East African community and like Addis in Ethiopia one of the main locations in Africa for the UN as well as International donor support. There are substantial degraded lands in the region (Actually Kilimanjaro and Arusha regions). It is also a major tourism and trade destination serviced by numerous international aviation companies. (NB: There has always been the potential for excellent synergy between JCL energy agriculture, tourism and aviation).
We are now constructing a detailed business plan and working towards returning the TIC (Tanzanian Investment Promotion/protection Centre) applications for approval. This is following a number of years of investigation and observations about how best to develop Jatropha Curcas Linn as a new commercial crop species.
This is a short brief of the overall KBC objectives.
We seek to illustrate a twelve year Centre of Excellence (COE) driven, integrated agriculture to Industry bio energy project for the Kilimanjaro Region of Tanzania. (Two-Three years to set up and establish first harvest values + ten years of systematic professional agricultural extension, support and management of complete value chains) for approval by the Tanzania Investment Promotion Centre and related communities of the Kilimanjaro Region.
The prime areas of activity will be:
COE- at Lake Chala - Rombo district, with the indication that this will evolve to be University Kilimanjaro East African Sustainable Bio Energy Centre; (includes + 200Ha's of Land) .
CHP-Waste to energy, Biomass to Energy Arusha town (+160,000pop) and Moshi Town (+250,000pop).
City Sludge Collection and Processing Centres Waste to fertilizer - Arusha and Moshi.
KIA Bio refinery- Kilimanjaro International Airport. To possibly include Pyrolysis (Bio Oil) - CHP (Char) - MixAlco (Bio Mass fermentation) and Hydro treating systems producing Bio Jet Fuel, related value added liquid fuels and lubricants plus other commodity production. (Pharmaceutical - Bio-plastics).
The above Capital assets and related machinery, transport, admin and logistics as well as operational "start-up" costs are significant.
We are currently assessing the requirements that will be essential for the professional agricultural extension and continual support of Jatropha Curcas Linn at specific rain fed, suitable locations (non-food/non pasture or woodland/forest land locations). Setting a target of 30,000 Ha's of extension per annum. With reference to various studies (GTZ, Dfid, research programs and several NGO's interest groups) we are aware of the general amount of undeveloped land that could be used to cultivate energy crops and/or plant Jatropha Curcas Linn in the Kilimanjaro region as well as other high potential regions in Southern, East, Central and West African locations, India, SE Asia and several island states.
(NB: While using Jatropha as our benchmark plant species we are aware of alternative species and agricultural waste from (Sugar, Coffee, General) agriculture for biomass.
We have set a target of $4000 USD per Ha of extension and support; inclusive of Government of Tanzania led land assessments, allocations and community collaborations; placing a premium upon ensuring that correct land areas are identified and allocated to community members under special land title agreements for the cultivation of JCL and/or other Biomass/Oil Seed energy; marginal land, crops, with the support of the COE extension professionals, workers and equipment.
At 30,000Ha/p.a professional agricultural extension cost will be $120 Million US p.a.
Our program seeks to ensure that land set aside for energy crops like Jatropha remains in the ownership or occupancy of members of the regional communities. We seek to include the costs of survey and administration required to (a) continually identify specific land areas and (b) ensure that these are allocated to Tanzanians who would agree to plant Jatropha, Castor, and other (non food) oil seed plant varieties at these land areas that are considered unsuitable for food agriculture.
KBC's role will be to engineer the Agricultural Extension program, establish continual primary farming support and to execute the purchase and transfer to processing (at KIA) of the developed harvest values. This is a substantial program of long term activity requiring international finance support as requested by the Tanzanian Government . 30,000 Ha's of extension work p.a. requires very close links with regional agricultural, land and communications officers throughout the Kilimanjaro areas as their locations of operation will most certainly be the primary regional decentralised coordinators of extension, plant 'species support and pre processing harvest management.
The ideology will incorporate a regional calendar of activities to include plant protection, nutrient delivery, harvest collection and transport for processing. KBC's model targets to harvest Biomass inclusive of oil seeds.
The Centre of Excellence at Lake Chala, will act as the main managerial link, executing recruitment, training and establishment of professional teams capable of delivering excellent servcies to the rural communities and support for the Government of Tanzania regional agricultural, land, and development officers. Establishing the breeding and distribution program for planting materials, soil enhancers, harvest improvers and harvest management to production. Establishing the co-ordination of events along the value chains to arrive at manufactured commodity outputs as well as establishing a "closed loop" agricultural system that ensures sustainability.
With professional management of the established Jatropha stands the target will be to obtain up to 6% CJO (Crude Jatropha Oil) from the Biomass and to process 100% of the biomass to usable products, inclusive of recycling nutrients back to the JCL stands.
KBC seeks to propose a complete system in support of agriculture and Industry success. In both Moshi and Arusha there will be opportunity to integrate with the City Councils and establish City Waste to Fertilizer and City Waste to Energy projects. The only possible way to enhance land and move it from being marginal or only semi productive is to ensure that waste from the cities is reprocessed and delivered back to the land. One may still require some inorganic fertilizers and plant protection/enhancement inputs but our estimation is that the cities produce substantial biological wastes that can be redirected back into the cycle of productivity (for food and fuel security). Within the City councils of both Moshi and Arusha there are professional officers working on waste management systems. We communicate with these people to get their opinions and feedback as they know the most practical methods and locations where the work KBC will propose should be carried out as well as the capacities they feel the cities will have in terms of waste to fertilizer and waste to energy.
NB: We are in contact with major suppliers of the technologies platforms required, but a little dismayed that UK industry does not appear to be as energetic as the USA, Germany or Holland.
The intention is to establish a business model "template" that may guide the cultivation of JCL and other energy crops at strategic locations throughout the subtropical regions and suggest the various biomass processing technologies that can be developed in synergy to deliver a variety of value added energy commodities. We are aware of, and support the many village projects that seek to promote JCL cultivation for oil and soaps to improve cooking and hygiene conditions while considering that JCL Castor have a larger energy role with considerable opportunity to create quality income values.
Over the period, 2003 to date, I have worked with Governments and international companies in Africa, India, SE Asia and several island states, as well as in the USA, UK and EU, to establish policy for the promotion of agriculture for energy. I have focused on Jatropha Curcas Linn, as well as other high potential oil seed varieties or biomass species that can support energy agriculture, and the technologies that are required for agricultural success.
There are many locations where Jatropha has been planted out incorrectly, not supported and not managed for the correct processing opportunities. We want our KBC project to be a quality model for the Kilimanjaro Region but, at the same time we have identified locations in other parts of Tanzania, Kenya, Uganda, Malawi, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Zambia, Nigeria, Ghana, Namibia, Botswana, Ethiopia, DRC and Congo, as well as locations in India and all across SE Asia. This Kilimanjaro "template" will be used to illustrate many project opportunities where the location potential for success appears offer a strategic alternative energy agriculture to industry program.
At an average yield of 40Mt of Biomass per Ha the potential is to deliver 1,200,000 Mt of Bio mass from 30,000 Ha, and to increase this each year by a further 30,000 Ha's for ten years.
(Target following ten years of harvesting 12,000,000Mt's of Biomass from farming the approved marginal lands of the Kilimanjaro - Arusha Region.)
While most Jatropha projects only focus on the oil seed as the harvest value the KBC program focuses on the total renewable harvest biomass and the potential to process this to Bio Oil and then additionally to Bio Jet Fuel, Bio Diesel, Lubricants and possibly Bio Plastics. This type of technology "A Complete Bio Refinery Complex" will be targeted for establishment at the KIA location and hopefully will bring the stimulus to really promote a range of associated enterprises that can drive up the value of the KIA Special Economic Development Zone.
National Policy in Tanzania, Kenya, Uganda, Mozambique, Ghana, Nigeria, Angola, Cameroon, Sierra Leone, Congo, DRC, Ethiopia, and others countries of Africa and Asia suggests that a complete bio energy model is a requirement for obtaining decentralised energy objectives, Biomass to liquid bio fuels for domestic and export sales and, for completing the cycle of agriculture that delivers nutrient back to the cultivation areas. This type of integrated ideology is required (food and fuel security) in order to improve agriculture in the sub tropical regions generally, not just for energy or climate change policies. We know that the KBC project will have very positive impacts upon the regions food productivity and that this influence will further stimulate activity in sister regions over time, especially in terms of additional horticultural opportunity.
KBC has targeted to have Bio Jet Fuel as a lead to market export driver as delivery FOB at strategic sub tropical International Airports allows for a "Least Cost" export sale and minimum GHG emissions associated with manufacturing. In East Africa KIA and MIA (Kenya) possess the strategic city locations as well as available land and communities to promote agriculture for bio jet fuel and other liquid fuels from agriculture. We feel that our model will stimulate a lot of discussion with central administrations and promote very positive synergy with international and national considerations. Again, not just for climate change but in terms of community member land ownership, professional extension services and support and international donor funding.
At this time we have not calculated all he Carbon reduction accounts anticipated but will relate this TIC application to the national consultant office of the UNFCCC. KBC will seek to develop a comprehensive over view of the Carbon emission reduction opportunities. Use of Jatropha derived bio jet fuel has been assessed as reducing emissions by up to 73%.
I have purposely incorporated KBC as a local company that can establish the above program and include Tanzanian's as investors, experts and executives as well as welcome other international investors.
Jatropha Curcas Linn has been promoted as a high potential bio fuel plant for the past several years and despite many negative comments there has been broad based acceptance an promotion of national cultivation programs. On numerous experimental plot cultivations Jatropha Curcas has performed very well however it is clear that professional agricultural extension work has not frequently been carried out by investing companies.
This is the case in several African and Asian countries. The reason that KBC is constructing a model for Agricultural extension and related industries is to be in a position to illustrate the amount of investment that is required to afford a complete agriculture to industry model. The technologies for processing biomass to products like Bio Jet Fuel, Bio Diesel, Lubricants an other commodities are quite well advanced but they are high capital cost and of course there has to be in-country technical and management skills development.
Most important for Jatropha cultivation is the strategic location of plantations and support for professional extension as well as processing to market of harvest values. Given a quality economic model supported by both EIA and SIA's Governments of the subtropical regions developing policies for the promotion of Jatropha Curcas Linn can contemplate considerable international support for their programs. In fact, this has to be the case when one observes the level of interest. The KBC model allows the Government's considering JCL extension to apply for international donor/grant/UNFCC consultant assistance and, in turn the Centre of Excellence may derive incomes for executing the agricultural extension servcies in partnership with the regional land, agricultural development departments and community farming cooperatives while facilitating the process to market delivery of value added products. For donor government consideration the promotion of new energy agriculture is complimentary for the export of goods, services, technology transfer, professional skills and turnkey process to market engineering solutions.
I do hope that my communication is informative and helpful. KBC seeks to assist with the promotion of Jatropha across all of the sub tropical regions, promoting the realities of professional cultivation, related industry and requirement to consider complete value chains. Under any circumstance each country must have a centre of excellence that can drive the promotion and cultivation of Jatropha, establish process industries that support cultivation, decentralised energy and the manufacture of advanced liquid bio fuels.
Dr. Clive Richardson
Chief Executive Officer
Kilimanjaro Biofuels Corporation
United Republic of Tanzania
Final Evaluation of the Tourism Development Project Cris”- Vietnam
I would like to identify a Vietnamese Colleague to join me to complete the above. I need a resume submission before the 25/08/2009 to the below email address. The resume has to be in EU format.
Tourism Human Resources Development expert (Category III):
•Advanced university degree in Tourism, HRD or a similar discipline
•Professional experience in human resource development, notably the vocational side in respect of Hospitality and Tourism, including Travel subjects
•Knowledge of Project Cycle Management procedures and the use of the Logical Framework
•Knowledge of the Educational system in Vietnam is considered as an important asset
•Previous experience in monitoring and evaluation is a must
•Previous experience with international donor agencies
•Fluency in written and spoken English
•Fluency in written and spoken Vietnamese is required
KBC's project in Tanzania
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